Safety is defined as "Not being exposed to
the risk of unacceptable harm or injury."
Along with this definition, safety for product, process or service
is provided in writing. This is Safety standard.
<< Category of safety standard >>
Safety standard contains standard in common across the world, common
standard in Europe, and standards at individual countries.
(1) Common standard across the world: IEC
International Electro Technical Commission
(2) European: Norm
European Standards (Normalization)
(3) USA: UL
Underwriters laboratories Ins
(4) Canada: CSA
Canadian Standards Association
Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law
(6) UK: BS
North Europe: FI，DEMKO，NEMKO，SEMKO
Safety standard has a wide range. Sole standard is not able to
provide everything so that individual standard by product category
is provided. IEC is provided in number of 60 thousands place. The
standards related to our product (Information technology equipment)
are IEC 60950, EN 60950
in Europe, and C22.2 No. 60950 in Canada.
Common safety standard across the world, IEC, is based on European
standard carrying the same abbreviation number.
Information technology equipment in Japan is not subject to Electrical
Appliance and Material Safety Law so that the equipment is not involved
in Technical Standards. It might be involved in DC power supply,
dare to say.
<< Safety standard and Test laboratory >>
The safety laboratory inspects products to see if they are properly
manufactured in a way to meet safety standard. Some laboratories
have established their own standard to inspect products, and some
inspect by utilizing existing standards.
|(1) Representative among those who have their own standards
is UL. Originally, UL used to be an underwriter in USA. As there
were a lot of fires caused by electric appliances, UL made a
standard to inspect and allow laboratories to affix a UL mark
(Figure 1.20) to products that passed their standards. And UL
decided not to pay insurance coverage to products without the
mark. This made UL famous in not only USA, but across the world,
and today as well. UL is, now, inspecting electric appliances
of course, to extinguishers and helmets and so on.
(2) CSA (Figure 1.21) made their own standard as well.
UL and CSA made a mutual agreement as they are adjacent to
each other. This allows UL to inspect with CSA standard together
to put c-UL mark (Figure 1.22). This mark indicates that both
UL and CSA are certified.
|(3) CCC (Figure. 1.23) reviewed their Compulsory Certification
since China joined WTO. "The State Quality Supervision
and Inspection and Quarantine Directorate General (AQSIQ)"
and "China National Certification and Accreditation Administration
Committee (CNCA)" issued new certification to take effect
on May 1, 2002. This is CCC China Compulsory Certification).
Also, effective from May 1, 2003, any shipping, import and sales
of products without certification mark and certificate has been
Figure. 1.23 CCC Mark
|(4) Manufactures and importers of electric appliances to sell
in Japan need to follow the law to affix Safety mark (Fig. 1.24)
effective on April, 2001.
Figure. 1.24 PSE Mark
<< Safety standard and Quality assurance >>
UL issues procedures (Report) or products that have passed safety
test, and every 3 months, UL audits factories to verify that their
quality assurance system is well organized as long as the product
is manufactured to follow the procedures.
As to TUV, they audit once per year provided that good products
are manufactured as long as quality assurance system of the company
is well organized.
As we applied ISO 90001 to TUV, TUV audits us but no ISO factory
<< CE marking >>
CE mark is required to affix on the products for shipping
and sales to EU (Europe) according to EU (EC) market integration.
"CE" of CE marking stands for "European Communities"
and means "compliant with European laws."
To put CE mark (Fig. 1.25), manufacturers need to follow
the obligations provided by laws shown below.
(1) The product shall meet basic technical requirements.
(2) To create Legal documents (Technical file and Declaration of
Conformity) and keep them in EU.
(3) Proper implementation of Quality assurance In case of legal
(Directive) nonconformity, product recall, sales suspension or sales
prohibition are enforced.
Technical basic requirements are based on Directives below.
1. Safety of machinery
3. Low voltage electrical equipment
4. Simple pressure vessels
5. Safety of toys
6. Gas appliances
7. Telecommunications terminal equipment
8. Medical devices
Among those above, Directives our products are subject to at present
are Machinery Directive, EMC Directive, and Low voltage Directive.
However, for Machinery Directive, it applies to equipments with
moving parts so that our products are not subject to.
EMC applies to equipments that probably interfere other equipments
with performance by electromagnetic waves, or equipments that are
probably interfered by those electro-magnetic waves including Mains
harmonic current and Electrostatic discharge immunity. Low Voltage
Directive specifies the equipment to be used with the input voltage
range of 50V to less than AC 1000V, or 75V to less than DC 1500V.
As every equipment is subject to the Directive, our products are
subject to EMC Directive and Low Voltage Directive together.
CE mark indication has the meaning as follow,
(1) "CE" display means that the manufacturer (CE mark
indicator) has implemented all required by Conformity Assessment
(Products Certification) System provided by EMC Directive, such
as ER basic requirement conformity, Creation and Keeping of Technical
file, Declaration of Conformity, and appropriate quality assurance.
(2) There are other Directives than EU Directive, and if
those require the CE display, the display means all related directives
have been conformed.
(3) CE mark indicates that the manufacturer has carried out legal
duties showing to regulatory authority.
The mark does not indicate by any means that the product is safe,
or never generates radio disturbance, etc. to customers or users.
(4) Requirements in displaying CE mark are as follows,
- "CE" Log design
- CE display shall be carried out by the manufacturer who takes
the final liability for products conformity assurance.
Note: If the manufacturer entrusts to a statutory agent, the agent
can display the mark. Importers are not allowed to do this.
- CE display shall be put on the product. If not for some reasons,
the marking shall be put on the operation manual or warranty which
are enclosed with the product together, or on the packaging box.
- CE mark shall be "easily legible", "easily readable,"
and "hard to erase." Also, "CE" log height is
specified to be 5mm or higher.